Caution - Investigational Drug; Limited by United States Law to Investigational use only.
Caution - Investigational Drug; Limited by United States Law to Investigational use only.
Clinical resources

Clinical resources

Further useful resources can be found by clicking on the links below:

  • Ularitide resources
  • Urodilatin resources
  • Urodilatin natriuretic peptides resources
  • Urodilatin useful resources

Ularitide resources

Renal effects of ularitide in patients with decompensated heart failure.
Lüss H, Mitrovic V, Seferovic PM, Simeunovic D, Ristic AD, Moiseyev VS, Forssmann WG, Hamdy AM, Meyer M. Am Heart J. 2008 Jun;155(6):1012.e1-8. 

Therapeutic use of the natriuretic peptide ularitide in acute renal failure.
Meyer M, Pfarr E, Schirmer G, Uberbacher HJ, Schöpe K, Böhm E, Flüge T, Mentz P, Scigalla P, Forssmann WG. Ren Fail. 1999 Jan;21(1):85-100. 

Ularitide: from renal natriuretic peptide to clinical trials.
Meyer M, Uberbacher HJ, Böhm E, Schöpe KB, Brett W, Forssmann WG. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 1996 Jul;5(4):364-8. Review. 

Effects of the renal natriuretic peptide urodilatin (ularitide) in patients with decompensated chronic heart failure: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose trial.
Mitrovic V, Lüss H, Nitsche K, Forssmann K, Maronde E, Fricke K, Forssmann WG, Meyer M. Am Heart J. 2005 Dec;150(6):1239. 

Urodilatin (INN:ularitide) as a new drug for the therapy of acute renal failure following cardiac surgery.
Meyer M, Wiebe K, Wahlers T, Zenker D, Schulze FP, Michels P, Forssmann WG. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1997 May;24(5):374-6. 

Basic aspects of vasorelaxant and bronchodilating peptides in clinical use: urodilatin (INN: Ularitide), VIP, and PACAP.
Meyer M, Flüge T, Kruhøffer M, Forssmann WG. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Dec 26;805:443-61; discussion 461-3. Review.  

[Urodilatin (INN: ularitide). A new peptide in the treatment of acute kidney failure following liver transplantation]
Kuse ER, Meyer M, Constantin R, Oldhafer K, Schlitt 

Urodilatin (ularitide, INN): a potent bronchodilator in asthmatic subjects.
Flüge T, Fabel H, Wagner TO, Schneider B, Forssmann WG. Eur J Clin Invest. 1995 Oct;25(10):728-36. 

Urodilatin (ularitide, INN): a renal natriuretic peptide. Molecular biology and clinical importance.
Forssmann WG. Nephron. 1995;69(3):211-22. Review. 

Acute renal failure following cardiac surgery is reverted by administration of Urodilatin (INN: Ularitide).
Wiebe K, Meyer M, Wahlers T, Zenker D, Schulze F, Michels P, Dalichau H, Mohr FW, Borst H, Forssmann WG. Eur J Med Res. 1996 Feb 22;1(5):259-65.

 
 

Urodilatin resources

ANP and urodilatin: who is who in the kidney.
Hirsch JR, Meyer M, Forssmann WG. Eur J Med Res. 2006 Oct 27;11(10):447-54. Review. 

Urodilatin, a natriuretic peptide stimulating particulate guanylate cyclase, and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor dipyridamole attenuate experimental pulmonary hypertension: synergism upon coapplication.
Schermuly RT, Weissmann N, Enke B, Ghofrani HA, Forssmann WG, Grimminger F, Seeger W, Walmrath D. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001 Aug;25(2):219-25. 

Bronchodilation using combined urodilatin – albuterol administration in asthma: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Flüge T, Forssmann WG, Kunkel G, Schneider B, Mentz P, Forssmann K, Barnes PJ, Meyer M. Eur J Med Res. 1999 Oct 15;4(10):411-5. 

Urinary and plasma urodilatin measured by a direct RIA using a highly specific antiserum.
Meyer M, Armbruster FP, Maier I, Schwing J, Haller C, Missbichler A, Adermann K, Forssmann WG, Woloszczuk W. Clin Chem. 1998 Dec;44(12):2524-9. 

Radiocontrast-induced natriuresis associated with increased urinary urodilatin excretion.
Haller C, Meyer M, Scheele T, Koch A, Forssmann WG, Kübler W. J Intern Med. 1998 Feb;243(2):155-62. 

Urodilatin, a natriuretic peptide with clinical implications.
Meyer M, Richter R, Forssmann WG. Eur J Med Res. 1998 Feb 21;3(1-2):103-110. Review. 

Urinary excretion of urodilatin in healthy children and children with renal disease. 

Seeman T, Meyer M, Schmitt CP, Remer T, Forssmann WG, Schärer K. Pediatr Nephrol. 1998 Jan;12(1):55-9. 

Is urodilatin the missing link in exercise-dependent renal sodium retention?
Schmidt W, Bub A, Meyer M, Weiss T, Schneider G, Maassen N, Forssmann WG. J Appl Physiol. 1998 Jan;84(1):123-8. 

Prophylactic use of low-dose urodilatin for prevention of renal impairment following liver transplantation: a randomized placebo-controlled study.
Langrehr JM, Kahl A, Meyer M, Neumann U, Knoop M, Jonas S, Steinmüller T, Bechstein WO, Frei U, Forssmann WG, Neuhaus P. Clin Transplant. 1997 Dec;11(6):593-8. 

Natriuresis after cardiopulmonary bypass: relationship to urodilatin, atrial natriuretic factor, antidiuretic hormone, and aldosterone.
Sehested J, Wacker B, Forssmann WG, Schmitzer E. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997 Oct;114(4):666-71. 

Urinary excretion of urodilatin in patients with cirrhosis.
Saló J, Jiménez W, Kuhn M, Ginès A, Ginès P, Fernández-Esparrach G, Angeli P, Clària J, Bataller R, Arroyo V, Forssmann WG, Rodés J. Hepatology. 1996 Dec;24(6):1428-32. 

Urodilatin is involved in sodium homeostasis and exerts sodium-state-dependent natriuretic and diuretic effects.
Meyer M, Richter R, Brunkhorst R, Wrenger E, Schulz-Knappe P, Kist A, Mentz P, Brabant EG, Koch KM, Rechkemmer G, Forssmann WG. Am J Physiol. 1996 Sep;271(3 Pt 2):F489-97. 

Synthesis of phospho-urodilatin by combination of global phosphorylation with the segment coupling approach.
Mostafavi H, Austermann S, Forssmann WG, Adermann K. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1996 Aug;48(2):200-7. 

Secretion of a urodilatin-like immunoreactive (URO-like-IR) substance from a human kidney cell line (HEK-293).
Bub A, Rechkemmer G, Hock D, Forssmann WG. Eur J Med Res. 1996 Jul 25;1(10):479-83. 

Urodilatin secretion in salt-loaded Wistar rats.
Bub A, Rechkemmer G, Hock D, Forssmann WG. Eur J Med Res. 1996 Jun 25;1(9):417-24. 

Release of urodilatin from perfused rat kidney and from cultured neonatal rat kidney cells.
Kirchhoff K, Forssmann WG. Pflugers Arch. 1995 Sep;430(5):739-44. 

Treatment of acute renal failure with urodilatin after unrelated bone marrow transplantation in an 18-month-old boy.
Laws HJ, Kropp S, Meyer M, Forssmann WG, Burdach S. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995 Aug;16(2):307-10. 

Effects of urodilatin in the rat kidney: comparison with ANF and interaction with vasoactive substances.
Endlich K, Forssmann WG, Steinhausen M. Kidney Int. 1995 Jun;47(6):1558-68. 

Efficacy of prolonged infusion of urodilatin [ANP-(95-126)] in patients with congestive heart failure.
Elsner D, Muders F, Müntze A, Kromer EP, Forssmann WG, Riegger GA. Am Heart J. 1995 Apr;129(4):766-73. 

 [Urodilatin. Use of a new peptide in intensive care]
Meyer M, Schulz-Knappe P, Kuse ER, Hummel M, Hetzer R, Pichlmayr R, Forssmann WG. Anaesthesist. 1995 Feb;44(2):81-91. Review. German. 

Urodilatin inhibits sodium reabsorption in the isolated perfused rat kidney.
Kirchhoff K, Bub A, Marxen P, Forssmann WG. Exp Nephrol. 1994 Nov-Dec;2(6):351-7. 

Urodilatin: from cardiac hormones to clinical trials.
Forssmann WG, Meyer M, Schulz-Knappe P. Exp Nephrol. 1994 Nov-Dec;2(6):318-23. Review. 

 Urodilatin: a new approach for the treatment of therapy-resistant acute renal failure after liver transplantation.
Cedidi C, Meyer M, Kuse ER, Schulz-Knappe P, Ringe B, Frei U, Pichlmayr R, Forssmann WG. Eur J Clin Invest. 1994 Sep;24(9):632-9. 

1H-NMR studies of the natriuretic peptide urodilatin: sequence-specific resonance assignment.
Weber J, Rösch P, Adermann K, Forssmann WG, Wokaun A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 17;1207(2):231-5. 

Treatment of acute postoperative renal failure after liver and heart transplantation by urodilatin.
Cedidi C, Kuse ER, Meyer M, Oldhafer K, Ringe B, Wahlers T, Cremer J, Frei U, Pichlmayr R, Forssmann WG. Clin Investig. 1993 Jun;71(6):435-6. 

Development and application of a urodilatin (CDD/ANP-95-126)-specific radioimmunoassay.
 Drummer C, Fiedler F, Bub A, Kleefeld D, Dimitriades E, Gerzer R, Forssmann WG. Pflugers Arch. 1993 Jun;423(5-6):372-7. 

Urodilatin, a new therapy to prevent kidney failure after heart transplantation.
Hummel M, Kuhn M, Bub A, Mann B, Schneider B, von Eickstedt KW, Forssmann WG, Hetzer R. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1993 Mar-Apr;12(2):209-17; discussion 217-8. 

Urodilatin: a new peptide with beneficial effects in the postoperative therapy of cardiac transplant recipients.
Hummel M, Kuhn M, Bub A, Bittner H, Kleefeld D, Marxen P, Schneider B, Hetzer R, Forssmann WG. Clin Investig. 1992 Aug;70(8):674-82. 

Urodilatin, a natriuretic factor from kidneys, can modify renal and cardiovascular function in men.
Saxenhofer H, Raselli A, Weidmann P, Forssmann WG, Bub A, Ferrari P, Shaw SG. Am J Physiol. 1990 Nov;259(5 Pt 2):F832-8. 

Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the natriuretic peptide urodilatin (CDD-/ANP-95-126) and the effect on biological activity.
Dörner T, Gagelmann M, Feller S, Herbst F, Forssmann WG. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Sep 15;163(2):830-5. 

Urodilatin: a newly described member of the ANP family.
Feller SM, Gagelmann M, Forssmann WG. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1989 Mar;10(3):93-4. Review. 

Isolation and structural analysis of “urodilatin”, a new peptide of the cardiodilatin-(ANP)-family, extracted from human urine.
Schulz-Knappe P, Forssmann K, Herbst F, Hock D, Pipkorn R, Forssmann WG. Klin Wochenschr. 1988 Sep 1;66(17):752-9. 

Urodilatin (CDD/ANP-95-126) is not biologically inactivated by a peptidase from dog kidney cortex membranes in contrast to atrial natriuretic peptide/cardiodilatin (alphahANP/ CDD-99-126).
Gagelmann M, Hock D, Forssmann WG. FEBS Lett. 1988 Jun 20;233(2):249-54. 

Postprandial natriuresis in humans: further evidence that urodilatin, not ANP, modulates sodium excretion.
Drummer C, Franck W, Heer M, Forssmann WG, Gerzer R, Goetz K. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F301-10. 

The renal paracrine peptide system–possible urologic implications of urodilatin.
Meyer M, Stief CG, Becker AJ, Truss MC, Taher A, Jonas U, Forssmann WG. World J Urol. 1996;14(6):375-9. Review. 

Synthesis, purification and biological activity of (Ser10-phosphatidyl)-urodilatin (phosphourodilatin).
Mostafavi H, Adermann K, Austermann S, Raida M, Meyer M, Forssmann WG. Biomed Pept Proteins Nucleic Acids. 1995;1(5):255-60.

 
 

General natriuretic peptide resources

Expression of guanylyl cyclase B in the human corpus cavernosum penis and the possible involvement of its ligand C-type natriuretic polypeptide in the induction of penile erection.
Küthe A, Reinecke M, Uckert S, Becker A, David I, Heitland A, Stief CG, Forssmann WG, Mägert HJ. J Urol. 2003 May;169(5):1918-22. 

Human natriuretic peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity.
Krause A, Liepke C, Meyer M, Adermann K, Forssmann WG, Maronde E. Eur J Med Res. 2001 May 29;6(5):215-8. 

cGMP-dependent and -independent inhibition of a K+ conductance by natriuretic peptides: molecular and functional studies in human proximal tubule cells.
Hirsch JR, Meyer M, Mägert HJ, Forssmann WG, Mollerup S, Herter P, Weber G, Cermak R, Ankorina-Stark I, Schlatter E, Kruhøffer M. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999 Mar;10(3):472-80. 

Natriuretic peptides increase a K+ conductance in rat mesangial cells.
Cermak R, Kleta R, Forssmann WG, Schlatter E. Pflugers Arch. 1996 Feb;431(4):571-7. 

Bronchodilating effects of natriuretic and vasorelaxant peptides compared to salbutamol in asthmatics.
Flüge T, Fabel H, Wagner TO, Schneider B, Forssmann WG. Regul Pept. 1995 Nov 10;59(3):357-70. 

Detection of immunoreactive atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in the equine atrium.
Mifune H, Richter R, Forssmann WG. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1995 Aug;192(2):117-21.  

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates cardiodilatin/atrial natriuretic peptide (CDD/ANP-(99-126) secretion from cultured neonatal rat myocardiocytes.
Bäsler I, Kuhn M, Müller W, Forssmann WG. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Nov 30;291(3):335-42. 

Bronchodilating effects of natriuretic and vasorelaxant peptides compared to salbutamol in asthmatics.
Flüge T, Fabel H, Wagner TO, Schneider B, Forssmann WG. Regul Pept. 1995 Nov 10;59(3):357-70. 

Localization and coexistence of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in vertebrate adrenal chromaffin cells immunoreactive to TH, DBH and PNMT.
Wolfensberger M, Forssmann WG, Reinecke M. Cell Tissue Res. 1995 May;280(2):267-76. 

Localization of the bronchodilator effect induced by type A natriuretic peptide in asthmatic subjects.
Flüge T, Fabel H, Wagner TO, Forssmann WG. Clin Investig. 1994 Oct;72(10):772-4. 

Type A natriuretic peptides exhibit different bronchoprotective effects in rats.
Flüge T, Hoymann HG, Hohlfeld J, Heinrich U, Fabel H, Wagner TO, Forssmann WG. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Dec 27;271(2-3):395-402 

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study of the myoendocrine cells of the fish Hypostomus cordovae. Maldonado C, Forssmann WG, Aoki A. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1992 Dec;186(6):557-61. 

Distribution patterns and coexistence of neurohormonal peptides (ANP, BNP, NPY, SP, CGRP, enkephalins) in chromaffin cells and nerve fibers of the anuran adrenal organ.
Reinecke M, Heym C, Forssmann WG. Cell Tissue Res. 1992 May;268(2):247-56. 

Endogenous natriuretic peptides: effect on collecting duct function in rat kidney.
Schulz-Knappe P, Honrath U, Forssmann WG, Sonnenberg H. Am J Physiol. 1990 Sep;259(3 Pt 2):F415-8. 

Demonstration of the storage form of cardiac hormones by the use of segment-specific antibodies against human cardiodilatin/human atrial natriuretic peptide (CDD/hANP).
Christmann MP, Nokihara K, Feller S, Forssmann WG. Acta Histochem Suppl. 1990;38:173-8. 

Degradation of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP-26) by endoprotease-24.11 from kidney cortical membranes.
Vogt-Schaden M, Gagelmann M, Hock D, Herbst F, Forssmann WG. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Jun 30;161(3):1177-83 

Atrial natriuretic peptide in congestive heart failure in the dog: plasma levels, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, ultrastructure of atrial myoendocrine cells, and hemodynamic, hormonal, and renal effects.
Riegger GA, Elsner D, Kromer EP, Daffner C, Forssmann WG, Muders F, Pascher EW, Kochsiek K. Circulation. 1988 Feb;77(2):398-406. 

Relaxation of smooth muscle by cardiodilatin/atrial natriuretic peptide is inhibited by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation.
Gagelmann M, Hock D, Forssmann WG. FEBS Lett. 1987 Dec 10;225(1-2):251-4 

Immunocytochemistry of cardiac polypeptide hormones (cardiodilatin/atrial natriuretic polypeptide) in brain and hearts of Myxine glutinosa (Cyclostomata).
Reinecke M, Betzler D, Forssmann WG. Histochemistry. 1987;86(3):233-9. 

ANP protects against reoxygenation-induced hypercontracture in adult cardiomyocytes.
Hempel A, Friedrich M, Schlüter KD, Forssmann WG, Kuhn M, Piper HM. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 2):H244-9. 

Relaxation of non-contracted smooth muscle by atrial natriuretic peptide.
Peral de Bruno M, Coviello A, Meyer M, Forssmann WG. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1992;14(6):1125-39. 

Atrial natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive cells in the guinea pig inner ear.
Meyer zum Gottesberge AM, Gagelmann M, Forssmann WG. Hear Res. 1991 Nov;56(1-2):86-92. 

Effects of ANP-(95-126) in dogs before and after induction of heart failure.
Riegger GA, Elsner D, Forssmann WG, Kromer EP. Am J Physiol. 1990 Dec;259(6 Pt 2):H1643-8. 

Nucleotide sequence of a porcine prepro atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) cDNA.
Mägert HJ, Appelhans H, Gassen HG, Forssmann WG. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Nov 25;18(22):6704. 

Isolation and structural analysis of the circulating human cardiodilatin (alpha ANP).
Forssmann K, Hock D, Herbst F, Schulz-Knappe P, Talartschik J, Scheler F, Forssmann WG. Klin Wochenschr. 1986 Dec 15;64(24):1276-80. 

Immunocytochemical evidence for CDD/ANP-like peptides in strands of myoendocrine cells associated with the ventricular conduction system of the rat heart.
Back H, Stumpf WE, Ando E, Nokihara K, Forssmann WG. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1986;175(2):223-6.

 
 

Other useful resources

Survival of severe ARDS with five-organ system failure following burns and inhalation injury in a 15-year-old patient.
Cedidi C, Hierner R, Pichlmaier M, Forssmann WG, Meyer M. Burns. 2003 Jun;29(4):389-94. 

Cellular localization, membrane distribution, and possible function of guanylyl cyclases A and 1 in collecting ducts of rat.
Hirsch JR, Kruhøffer M, Adermann K, Heitland A, Maronde E, Meyer M, Forssmann WG, Herter P, Plenz G, Schlatter E. Cardiovasc Res. 2001 Aug 15;51(3):553-61. 

Regulated, side-directed secretion of proguanylin from isolated rat colonic mucosa.
Martin S, Adermann K, Forssmann WG, Kuhn M. Endocrinology. 1999 Nov;140(11):5022-9. 

Role of the prosequence of guanylin.
Schulz A, Marx UC, Hidaka Y, Shimonishi Y, Rösch P, Forssmann WG, Adermann K. Protein Sci. 1999 Sep;8(9):1850-9. 

Porcine guanylin and uroguanylin: cDNA sequences, deduced amino acid sequences, and biological activity of the chemically synthesized peptides.
Mägert HJ, Hill O, Zucht HD, Martin S, Meyer M, Forssmann WG, Adermann K. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 May 27;259(1):141-8. 

Carboxy-terminal extension stabilizes the topological stereoisomers of guanylin.
Schulz A, Escher S, Marx UC, Meyer M, Rösch P, Forssmann WG, Adermann K. J Pept Res. 1998 Dec;52(6):518-25. 

Distinction between the three disulfide isomers of guanylin 99-115 by low-energy collision-induced dissociation.
Badock V, Raida M, Adermann K, Forssmann WG, Schrader M. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1998;12(23):1952-6. 

One peptide, two topologies: structure and interconversion dynamics of human uroguanylin isomers.
Marx UC, Klodt J, Meyer M, Gerlach H, Rösch P, Forssmann WG, Adermann K. J Pept Res. 1998 Sep;52(3):229-40. 

In vitro disulfide-coupled folding of guanylyl cyclase-activating peptide and its precursor protein.
 Hidaka Y, Ohno M, Hemmasi B, Hill O, Forssmann WG, Shimonishi Y. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 9;37(23):8498-507. 

Guanylin stimulates regulated secretion from human neuroendocrine pancreatic cells.
John M, Wiedenmann B, Kruhøffer M, Adermann K, Ankorina-Stark I, Schlatter E, Ahnert-Hilger G, Forssmann WG, Kuhn M. Gastroenterology. 1998 Apr;114(4):791-7. 

Uroguanylin: gene structure, expression, processing as a peptide hormone, and costorage with somatostatin in gastrointestinal D-cells.
Mägert HJ, Reinecke M, David I, Raab HR, Adermann K, Zucht HD, Hill O, Hess R, Forssmann WG. Regul Pept. 1998 Feb 27;73(3):165-76. 

Uroguanylin: gene structure, expression, processing as a peptide hormone, and costorage with somatostatin in gastrointestinal D-cells.
Mägert HJ, Reinecke M, David I, Raab HR, Adermann K, Zucht HD, Hill O, Hess R, Forssmann WG. Regul Pept. 1998 Feb 27;73(3):165-76. 

Mapping of peptides and protein fragments in human urine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Heine G, Raida M, Forssmann WG. J Chromatogr A. 1997 Jul 25;776(1):117-24. 

Synthesis, biological activity and isomerism of guanylate cyclase C-activating peptides guanylin and uroguanylin.
Klodt J, Kuhn M, Marx UC, Martin S, Rösch P, Forssmann WG, Adermann K. J Pept Res. 1997 Sep;50(3):222-30. 

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry guided purification of human guanylin from blood ultrafiltrate.
Schrader M, Jürgens M, Hess R, Schulz-Knappe P, Raida M, Forssmann WG. J Chromatogr A. 1997 Jul 25;776(1):139-45. 

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: a potent activator of human intestinal ion transport.
Fuchs M, Adermann K, Raab HR, Forssmann WG, Kuhn M. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Dec 26;805:640-7. 

Guanylin strongly stimulates rat duodenal HCO3- secretion: proposed mechanism and comparison with other secretagogues.
Guba M, Kuhn M, Forssmann WG, Classen M, Gregor M, Seidler U. Gastroenterology. 1996 Dec;111(6):1558-68. 


Localization, expression, and characterization of guanylin in the rat adrenal medulla.
Reinecke M, David I, Loffing-Cueni D, Ablinger P, Cetin Y, Kuhn M, Forssmann WG. Histochem Cell Biol. 1996 Oct;106(4):367-74. 

Functional analysis of the human guanylin gene promoter.
Pardigol A, Mägert HJ, Hill O, Forssmann WG. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Jul 25;224(3):638-44. 

cGMP-activating peptides do not regulate electrogenic electrolyte transport in principal cells of rat CCD.
Schlatter E, Cermak R, Forssmann WG, Hirsch JR, Kleta R, Kuhn M, Sun D, Schafer JA. Am J Physiol. 1996 Dec;271(6 Pt 2):F1158-65. 

Natriuresis caused by increased carotid Na+ concentration after renal denervation.
Emmeluth C, Goetz KL, Drummer C, Gerzer R, Forssmann WG, Bie P. Am J Physiol. 1996 Mar;270(3 Pt 2):F510-7. 

Circulating and tissue guanylin immunoreactivity in intestinal secretory diarrhoea.
Kuhn M, Kulaksiz H, Cetin Y, Frank M, Nold R, Arnold R, Böker K, Bischoff SC, Manns MP, Forssmann WG. Eur J Clin Invest. 1995 Dec;25(12):899-905. 

GCAP-II: isolation and characterization of the circulating form of human uroguanylin.
Hess R, Kuhn M, Schulz-Knappe P, Raida M, Fuchs M, Klodt J, Adermann K, Kaever V, Cetin Y, Forssmann WG. FEBS Lett. 1995 Oct 23;374(1):34-8. 

Bronchiolar nonciliated secretory (Clara) cells: source of guanylin in the mammalian lung.
Cetin Y, Kulaksiz H, Redecker P, Bargsten G, Adermann K, Grube D, Forssmann WG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 20;92(13):5925-9. 

Analysis of the human guanylin gene and the processing and cellular localization of the peptide.
Hill O, Kuhn M, Zucht HD, Cetin Y, Kulaksiz H, Adermann K, Klock G, Rechkemmer G, Forssmann WG, Mägert HJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 14;92(6):2046-50. 

A new human guanylate cyclase-activating peptide (GCAP-II, uroguanylin): precursor cDNA and colonic expression.
Hill O, Cetin Y, Cieslak A, Mägert HJ, Forssmann WG. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Dec 6;1253(2):146-9. 

Segmental differences in the effects of guanylin and Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin on Cl- secretion in human gut.
Kuhn M, Adermann K, Jähne J, Forssmann WG, Rechkemmer G. J Physiol. 1994 Sep 15;479 ( Pt 3):433-40. 

Enterochromaffin cells of the digestive system: cellular source of guanylin, a guanylate cyclase-activating peptide. Cetin Y, Kuhn M, Kulaksiz H, Adermann K, Bargsten G, Grube D, Forssmann WG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):2935-9. 

Radioimmunoassay for circulating human guanylin.
Kuhn M, Kulaksiz H, Adermann K, Rechkemmer G, Forssmann WG. FEBS Lett. 1994 Mar 21;341(2-3):218-22 

Segmental differences in the effects of guanylin and Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin on Cl- secretion in human gut.
Kuhn M, Adermann K, Jähne J, Forssmann WG, Rechkemmer G. J Physiol. 1994 Sep 15;479 ( Pt 3):433-40. 

The circulating bioactive form of human guanylin is a high molecular weight peptide (10.3 kDa).
Kuhn M, Raida M, Adermann K, Schulz-Knappe P, Gerzer R, Heim JM, Forssmann WG. FEBS Lett. 1993 Mar 1;318(2):205-9. 

Atrial myoendocrine cells (cardiodilatin/atrial natriuretic polypeptide-containing myocardiocytes) are target cells for estradiol.
Back H, Forssmann WG, Stumpf WE. Cell Tissue Res. 1989 Mar;255(3):673-4. 

The heart is the center of a new endocrine, paracrine, and neuroendocrine system.
Forssmann WG, Nokihara K, Gagelmann M, Hock D, Feller S, Schulz-Knappe P, Herbst F. Arch Histol Cytol. 1989;52 Suppl:293-315. Review. 

Separation of synthetic cardiodilatin/atrial natriuretic factor and related peptides by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
Dörner T, Gagelmann M, Hock D, Herbst F, Forssmann WG. J Chromatogr. 1989 May 30;490(2):411-7. 

Atrial granules in the dog heart after cardiac denervation.
Kaczmarczyk G, Forssmann WG, Noble MI, Gaul E, Schnoy N. Cell Tissue Res. 1987 Sep;249(3):701-5.  

[Primary pulmonary hypertension in childhood--clinical course and morphologic correlations with particular reference to the endocrine heart]
Herbst WM, Schmidt KG, Forssmann WG. Z Kardiol. 1987 Jul;76(7):439-44. German. 

Electronmicroscopical, immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical and biological evidence for the occurrence of cardiac hormones (ANP/CDD) in chondrichthyes. Reinecke M, Betzler D, Forssmann WG, Thorndyke M, Askensten U, Falkmer S. Histochemistry. 1987;87(6):531-8. 

Ultrastructural evidence of cardiodilatin in rat transplanted heart. Cuevas P, Golitsin A, Gonzalez AM, Forssmann WG. Transplant Proc. 1987 Oct;19(5):3789-91. 

Isolation of bovine cardiodilatin by fast protein liquid chromatography and reversedphase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hock D, Schriek U, Fey E, Forssmann WG, Mutt V. J Chromatogr. 1987 Jun 26;397:347-53. 

Cardiac hormones: morphology and biochemistry. Forssmann WG, Hock D, Mutt V. Klin Wochenschr. 1986;64 Suppl 6:4-12. 

Cardiac hormones. I. Review on the morphology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the endocrine heart. Forssmann WG. Eur J Clin Invest. 1986 Dec;16(6):439-51. Review. No abstract available. 

Long-term expression of isomyosins and myoendocrine functions in ectopic grafts of atrial tissue.
Jockusch H, Füchtbauer EM, Füchtbauer A, Leger JJ, Leger J, Maldonado CA, Forssmann WG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct;83(19):7325-9. 

Coexistence of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and oxytocin in neurons of the rat hypothalamus.
Jirikowski GF, Back H, Forssmann WG, Stumpf WE. Neuropeptides. 1986 Oct;8(3):243-9. 

Cardiodilatin-immunoreactivity in specific atrial granules of human heart revealed by the immunogold stain.
Maldonado CA, Saggau W, Forssmann WG. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1986;173(3):295-8. 

Cardiac hormones with renal effects. Potential role in health and disease.
Forssmann WG. Contrib Nephrol. 1986;50:1-13. No abstract available. 

Pathomorphological study of the endocrine heart in various cardiovascular diseases.
Späth J, Rippegather G, Lang RE, Schulz-Knappe P, Saggau W, Forssmann WG. Klin Wochenschr. 1986;64 Suppl 6:83-8. 

Biochemical and immunological evidence for a cardiodilatin-like substance in the snail neurocardiac axis.
Nehls M, Reinecke M, Lang RE, Forssmann WG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Nov;82(22):7762-6. 

Inhibition of noradrenaline-stimulated 86Rb/K+-exchange in vascular smooth muscle by porcine vasorelaxant atrial peptide, cardiodilatin-88.
Kreye VA, Forssmann WG, Gerstheimer F. Regul Pept Suppl. 1985;4:141-3. No abstract available. 

Phylogenetic aspects of cardiac hormones as revealed by immunocytochemistry, electronmicroscopy, and bioassay.
Reinecke M, Nehls M, Forssmann WG. Peptides. 1985;6 Suppl 3:321-31. 

Cardiodilatin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus of Tupaia.
Forssmann WG, Mutt V. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1985;172(1):1-5. 

Cardiac hormones: morphological and functional aspects.
Forssmann WG, Hock D, Kirchheim F, Metz J, Mutt V, Reinecke M. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1984;6(10-11):1873-8. 

The auricular myocardiocytes of the heart constitute an endocrine organ. Characterization of a porcine cardiac peptide hormone, cardiodilatin-126.
Forssmann WG, Birr C, Carlquist M, Christmann M, Finke R, Henschen A, Hock D, Kirchheim H, Kreye V, Lottspeich F, et al. Cell Tissue Res. 1984;238(3):425-30. 

Immunohistochemical localization of cardiodilatin in myoendocrine cells of the cardiac atria.
Metz J, Mutt V, Forssmann WG. nat Embryol (Berl). 1984;170(2):123-7. 

The right auricle of the heart is an endocrine organ. Cardiodilatin as a peptide hormone candidate.
Forssmann WG, Hock D, Lottspeich F, Henschen A, Kreye V, Christmann M, Reinecke M, Metz J, Carlquist M, Mutt V. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1983;168(3):307-13.

 
 
Clinical resources